ORCHARDS


The company has developed its expertise over years in the field of orchards and now it offers its expertise to anyone who would like to buy orchards

HOW YOU CAN START?
  • Buy lands suitable for farming at Rs 3,00,000/- per acre
  • Pay Rs. 2,00,000/- per acre development cost.
  • An individual can buy minimum half acre to maximum 54 acres of land.
  • Cost of Land Development Includes boundary, pillaring, fencing, weeding, de-rocking, Guard Rooms and providing electricity, water and 20 feet motorable road as desired in land.
  • 100% safety of your money invested as you get the land registered in your name to start.
  • You can pay 25% of land cost in advance and balance within 45 days for registration.
  • You need not come for registration as that can be arranged by appointing a nominee for you. The lands shall be registered in your name.
  • Price does not include registration and stamp duty cost which shall be extra as actual.
AFTER THIS YOU HAVE FOUR OPTIONS

Option- 1 : You can keep these lands for farming/appericiation or any other activities as you deem fit.

Option-2 : Lands so purchased can be given to company for particular farm development as per the following table

S.No. Crop Rate/acre(development) Time Taken for fruits Expected return/year Present Value of Orchard
1 . Grapes 4,00,000 3 Years 3 - 5 lakhs 20 - 40 lakhs
2 . Grapes 2,00,000 2.5 Years 1.5 - 3 lakhs 15 - 35 lakhs
3 . Grapes 1,50,000 2.5 Years 1 - 2.5 lakhs 12 - 25 lakhs
4 . Grapes 1,50,000 3 Years 1 - 2 lakhs 12 - 18 lakhs
5 . Grapes 1,00,000 4-5 Years 1 - 2 lakhs 15 - 25 lakhs
6 . Grapes 1,00,000 4-7 Years 2 - 4 lakhs 15 - 25 lakhs

Please note that in the above the company shall develop and hand you over the orchards once they start bearing fruits. You start getting yearly returns thereafter or you can sell these orchards in the market. The price includes maintenance charges of farms till the farm is developed. All the above mentioned crops are long term crops and normally bear good fruits for more than 25 years provided proper care is taken. If one wants to buy land for a particular crop the same should be conveyed before purchase of land, so that soil testing report as per the particular crop is carried out. Present value of orchard indicates the market price of fully grown and commercially managed orchards.

Option- 3 You can give these lands to company for a 10 years lease @ Rs12 per sqfit per year. The lease can also be given @ Rs 0.36 per acre per month. Once the company hands you back your land it shall be developed Orchards with minimum average age of plants at 6 years

Get Rs 24,000/- annual theka for 2000 Sq fit of your land costing Rs 1,00,000/-

Option- 4 You can give the lands along with orchard development cost of Rs 2,50,000/- per acre. In this case company shall pay you Rs 16000 per acre per month in addition to your land lease for ten years

For one Acre

Total you pay (one Time)Rs 5,00,000 + Rs 3,00,000/- = Rs 8,00,000/-
Total you get (monthly)Rs 16000/

1 . Mini Farm Half 4,00,000 8,000
2 . LR 1 1 8,00,000 16,000
3 . LR 2 2 16,00,000 32,000
4 . LR 3 3 24,00,000 48,000
5 . LR 4 4 30,00,000 60,000
6 . Mini Orchard 5 37,50,000 80,000 1 Guard Room GR (10’ X 20’)
7 . Prince Orchard 7 52,50,000 1,25,000 1 GR + 1 Tube Well(TW)
8 . Mega Orchard 10 75,00,000 1,50,000 1 GR + 1 TW + 1 BHK
9 . King Orchard 15 1,12,50,000 2,25,000 1 GR + 1 TW + 1 BHK + 1 Seri Culture Shed
10 . Le Royale Orchard 20 1,50,00,000 3,00,000 1 GR + 2 TW + 1 BHK + 1 Seri Culture Shed
11 . Prince Estate 25 1,87,50,000 3,64,000 1 GR + 2 TW + 2 BHK + 1 Seri Culture Shed
12 . Mega Estate 30 2,25,00,000 4,50,000 1 GR + 2 TW + 2 BHK + 2 Seri Culture Shed
13 . King Estate 40 3,00,00,000 6,00,000 1 GR + 3 TW + 3 BHK + 3 Seri Culture Shed
14 . Le Royale Estate 54 4,05,00,000 8,25,000 1 GR + 4 TW + 4 BHK + 4 Seri Culture Shed


POMEGRANATE HARVESTING, YIELD AND MARKETING


Normally, pomegranate flowers take 5 to 6 months to be ready as mature fruits. They should be harvested mature which can be judged by change in skin colour to slightly yellow and metallic sound when tapped. A grown up well kept tree should give about 100 to 150 fruits per year. A high density system with ‘Ganesh’ 1000 plant/ha (3x3m) has been found very profitable giving a crop of "100" fruits/tree of good quality.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is an ancient favorite table fruit of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The fruit is symbolic of plenty and very much liked for its cool, refreshing juice and valued for its medicinal properties. It retains its flavor and as such can keep well for over a year if it is properly filtered, bottled and preserved by using 0.1 per cent sodium benzoate.The juice of pomegranate is believed to be good for leprosy patients. The grains of the fruit are also eaten fresh in most of the hot countries and are used as condiment. The bark and rind of the fruits are commonlyused in dysentery and diarrhea. The rind is also used as dying material for cloth.

Dried seeds of pomegranate seeds with pulp are available as ‘Anardana’.

The tree produces attractive red flowers and is very commonly grown as an ornamental plant also.

The versatile adaptability, hardy, nature, low maintenance cost, steady but high yields, better keeping quality, fine table and therapeutic values and possibilities to throw the plant into rest period when irrigation potential is generally low, indicate the avenues for increasing the area under pomegranate in India.

PRODUCTION AREAS

As a commercial crop pomegranate is grown to a limited extent in selected locations in many states. The estimated area under pomegranate in India is about 25000 ha. with Maharashtra accounting for more than two third area, while other states like AP,MP,UP, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu share the rest.

Climate : Pomegranate prefers dry climate. During fruit development, prolonged hot and dry climate is required. Optimum temperature congenial for fruit development is 38 degree C. In humid climate the fruits are severely damaged by pomegranate butterfly and do not develop sweetness. It is winter hardy and very drought tolerant. It can grow up to an elevation of 1850 meters.

Soil : It grows under wide variety of soils and can tolerate even alkalinity and salinity to certain extent. However, best results are obtained in deep heavy loam and well drained soils. It is sensitive to soil moisture fluctuations causing fruit cracking which is a serious problem of this crop.

Varieties and Propagation : In recent years several new varieties have been developed and new orchards have come with well-known improved varieties.

Ganesh : This is a selection from ‘Alandi’ developed by Dr. Cheema at Pune which has revolutionized cultivation of pomegranate in Maharashtra state. This has soft seeds and pinkish flesh with juice of agreeable taste and bears heavily.

Dholka : Popular variety of Gujarat with fruits of large size, rind greenish yellow, flesh aril pinkish white seeds soft, juice acidic. It is a medium cropper.

Jodhpur Local : Medium sized fruit with hard rind, fleshy aril light pink, sweet, juicy, seed moderately hard.

Seedless (Bedana) : Fruit medium to large in size, rind brownish green, fleshy aril light pink or whitish, very sweet, very juicy, soft seeded. ‘Bassein seedless & KVK – 1’ are from Karnataka and ‘Jalore Selection’ are popular names in north India. In South India, ‘Paper Shell’, ‘Spanish Ruby’, ‘Muscat Red’ & ‘Velladu’ have shown promise.

CONSUMER PREFERENCE

Consumer preference - changing from time to time and from country to country.
Earlier, Ganesh variety with big sized fruits was the preferred one, and the fruits were exported to the Gulf countries.
Now, in Europe and other parts of the world, varieties such as Bhagwa (Kesar), Mridula are the suitable and accepted ones.
Soft seeded, coloured varieties with high per cent of juice with easy to remove arils are preferred.
Fruits weighing more than 500 gms with superior qualities - immediate and ready acceptance in the international markets.
Vegetative propagation is recommended in establishing pomegranate. Propagation by cuttings is common. Cuttings should be taken from suckers which spring from the base of the main stem and should be mature about 20 to 30 cm long and 6-12 mm thick. Rainy season is the best period to achieve maximum success.

CULTURAL PRACTICE :

Planting distance would depend on soil type and climate. Old orchards were planted at 3 to 6 m space. Nowadays with new dwarf varieties a spacing of 4 x 4 m is recommended which accommodates 625 plants/ha.

Training & Pruning : Multi stem training is more prevalent and useful also because due to some reason even if the plant losses one stem it contains others to survive.

Pomegranate fruits are borne terminally on short spurs arising from mature shoots. These bear fruits for 3 to 4 years. Only limited pruning of trees are required. The gradual growth of new shoots should be encouraged by restricted cutting back of bearingshoots. Suckers are removed regularly.

Orchard Management : During gestation period which is normally 3 to 4 years for improved varieties, growing pulses & green manure crops are recommended only during rainy season.

Flower regulation : In subtropics, pomegranate flowers in spring while in tropics (Central and South India), it flowers in three distinct phases with maximum intensity in rainy season. Spring flowers (Ambe-bahar) give fruits in summer when the demand is maximum but of poor quality. Therefore, efforts should be directed to avail of rainy flowers (Mrig-bahar) so that fruiting period coincides with the time of maximum water availability in the soil and the crop is taken without irrigation. For Mrig bahar treatment results in sufficient suppression of growth. Trees usually shed leaves by March and remain dormant upto May. Then the field is ploughed, manure and fertilizers are applied and first light irrigation is given in the middle of May and thereafter one or two light irrigation are given until rains set in. The trees put up new growth, flower and fruit with crop availability in October-November. This is the most advisable approach in arid and semi-arid regions with limited resources.

Nutrition : The recommended doses of manures of fertilizers for Ganesh variety in Maharashtra is 25 kg of FYM, 500 g N, 125 g P2O & 125 g. K2) per plant per year for 4 to 6 year old plants. Time of application will vary with the crop. For Ambe bahar December/January, for Mrig bahar May/June and for Haste Bahar October/November are appropriate periods.

Irrigation may be given depending on soil, climate and availability of water.

Pests & Diseases : Pomegranate butterfly and bark eating caterpillar are the common pests of Pomegranate.
The fruits are susceptible to fruit fly which needs to be controlled from flowering to button stage. At this stage spray of sevin (carbaryl) 0.2% (200 gm/100 litre) or endosuplhan 0.05% at 10 days interval alternatively, must be given Fruit spot and fruit rot are the common fungal diseases for which proper and regular spraying are made.

Physiological Disorder : Fruit cracking is a most serious physiological disorder in pomegranate which limits its cultivation. In young fruits it could be due to boron deficiency but fully grown fruits crack due to moisture imbalances as there are very sensitive to variations in soil moisture and humidity. Prolonged drought causes hardening of peel and if this is followed by heavy irrigation or down pour then the pulp grows and the peel cracks. This problem can be overcome by

  • Maintaining soil moisture and not allowing wide variations in soil moisture depletion,
  • Cultivation of tolerant varieties,
  • Early harvesting not allowing the fruits to crack and
  • Spray of calcium hydroxide on leaves and on fruit set.
HARVESTING, YIELD AND MARKETING :

Normally, pomegranate flowers take 5 to 6 months to be ready as mature fruits. They should be harvested mature which can be judged by change in skin colour to slightly yellow and metallic sound when tapped. A grown up well kept tree should give about 100 to 150 fruits per year. A high density system with ‘Ganesh’ 1000 plant/ha (5x2m) has been found very profitable giving a crop of "100" fruits/tree of good quality.

After harvesting, fruits can be cured in shade for about a week so that the skin becomes hard and fruits can stand transportation better. Thereafter, the fruits can be graded according to weight

Super Size - 700 gm & above
‘A’ grade - 500 gm & above
‘B’ grade - 350 to 500 gm & above
‘C’ grade - Less than 350 gm.

Cured fruits have good keeping quality which can further be prolonged through cold storage. When stored at 00C to 4.50C with 80%. Relative Humidity fruit remain safe even for seven months.

The orchard can give economic yield up to 30 years.


PAPAYA


BOTANICAL NAME: Carica papaya

HARVESTING AND YIELD

Fruits are harvested when they are of full size, light green in colour with tinge of yellow at apical end. On ripening, fruits of certain varieties turn yellow while some of them remain green. When the latex ceases to be milky and become watery, the fruits are suitable for harvesting.

The economic life of papaya plant is only 3 to 4 years. The yield varies widely according to variety, soil, climate and management of the orchard. The yield of 75-100 tonnes /ha. is obtained in a season from a papaya orchard depending on spacing and cultural practices.

Returns from the Project: The yield from the plantation is estimated at 30 tonnes(per acre) the 2nd year and 3rd Year 25tonnes each .

BY PRODUCT (EXTRA EARNING PAPAIN)

Papain is a proteolytic enzyme from the cysteine proteinase family. It is manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits as papaya is very rich in Papain. A milky fluid known as latex containing Papain oozes out of the green papaya. The greener the fruit, more active is the Papain. papaya is grown in large quantities in the North-East region including Assam.Papain enzyme results in high value-addition. Hence this product can be manufactured in Assam. It is also possible to produce Papain enzyme in many other states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, M.P, UP, AP and so on. Ideally, some progressive papaya grower should undertake his venture as a measure of forward integration.

VARIETY :

Coorg Honey Dew (table / processing purpose), Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Giant (canning), Pusa Majesty (papain production), Pusa Delicious (table purpose), Pusa Dwarf, CO.1, CO.2,(extraction of papain), CO. 3, CO. 5 (papain production), Washington (table purpose), Solo (table purpose), Ranchi, IIHR39 and IIHR54, Taiwan-785 (table / processing purpose), Taiwan-786 (table / processing purpose)

SEASON :

February - March

AREA UNDER CULTIVATION :

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa, Manipur and Meghalaya, M.P.

MATURITY INDICES :

Change of skin color from dark-green to light-green with some yellow at the blossom end (color break). Papayas are usually harvested at color break to ¼ yellow for export or at ½ to ¾ yellow for local markets. Flesh color changes from green to yellow or red (depending on cultivar) as the papayas ripen. A minimum soluble solids of 11.5% is required by the Hawaiian grade standards.

HARVESTING METHODS

Papaya fruits will be ready for harvest by about 9-10 months after planting depending on cultivar and prevailing temperature during the course of fruit development. The change of colour from green to yellow and the consistency of the latex from milky to watery indicate that the fruit is ready for harvest. The ripe fruit is harvested individually by hand picking taking care to avoid all possible injuries. The mature fruit easily gets detached from stem either by turning it upwards or by twisting. The fruit should be harvested early in the morning and kept in shade for grading.

PAPAIN EXTRACTION

The immature papaya fruit contains a milky latex containing papain. It has several uses in the industry viz., food processing, tanning and textile industry. In India CO.2 and CO.6 varieties of papaya are recommended for papain production. Considering the export potential of papain large areas are being brought under cultivation of papaya for papain production. For the purpose of papain tapping, partially mature fruits about 90-100 days old is selected. Incision is made with bamboo splinters or ivory knives about 0.3 cm deep on four sides of fruit from stalk end to tip early in the morning before 9.00 a.m. Latex is collected in glass vessels or aluminium trays. Similar incision is repeated on untapped surface of the same fruit three times at 3-4 days interval. Potassium Metabisulphite @0.05% is added to the liquid latex to extend the storage life of the papain. The liquid latex is then dried in sun or spray dried at a temperature of 50-55°C. Powder is prepared from dry flakes and sieved in a 10 mesh sieve. The papain in the powdered form is stored in polythene bags or in O airtight glass containers and stored for six months at 9 C.

GRADING

The fruits should be graded as per the size and colour while discarding the damaged and diseased fruits.

PACKAGING

For local market the fruits should be stored in a single layer of straw until they become soft. However for distant transport, the individual fruits are wrapped in newspaper/tissue paper to avoid bruising injuries during transport. The fruits are then packed in single-layer fiberboard containers with packing materials between the fruits.

STORAGE

For local markets optimum temperature of 20°C was found both for ripening and satisfactory storage for two weeks. Storage below 10°C has been known to cause chilling injuries greater in mature- green than ripe papayas. Chilling injury symptoms include pitting, blotchy coloration, uneven ripening, skin scald, and increased susceptibility to decay. More than half ripe papayas (at lest 50% yellow) can be stored at 4-10°C without developing symptoms of chilling injuries. Exposure of papayas to temperatures above 30°C for more than 10 days result in heat injury. The symptoms include uneven ripening, blotchy ripening, poor color, abnormal softening, surface pitting and accelerated decay.

Controlled atmosphere storage (3-5% O2 and 5-8% CO2) delays ripening and reduced respiration. Exposure to O2 levels below 2% and/or CO2 levels above 8% should be avoided because of the potential for development of off-flavors and uneven ripening.

PHYSIOLOGICAL / PHYSICAL DISORDERS

Skin abrasions result in blotchy coloration such as green islands (areas of skin that remain green and sunken when the fruit is fully-ripe) and accelerate water loss. Abrasion and puncture injuries are more important than impact injury for papayas.
Chilling injury. Ssymptoms include pitting, blotchy coloration, uneven ripening, skin scald, hard core (hard areas in the flesh around the vascular bundles), water soaking of tissues, and increased susceptibility to decay. Increased Alternaria rot was observed in mature-green papayas kept for 4 days at 2°C, 6 days at 5°C, 10 days at 7.5°C, or 14 days at 10°C. Susceptibility to chilling injury varies among cultivars and is greater in mature- green than ripe papayas (10 vs. 17 days at 2°C; 20 vs. 26 days at 7.5°C).

Heat injury Exposure of papayas to temperatures above 30°C for longer than 10 days or to temperature-time combinations beyond those needed for decay and/or insect control result in heat injury (uneven ripening, blotchy ripening, poor color, abnormal softening, surface pitting, accelerated decay). Quick cooling to 13°C after heat treatments minimizes heat injury.

Heat Treatments for Insect Control Hot water treatment: 30 minutes at 42°C followed within 3 minutes by a 49°C dip for 20 minutes.

Vapor heat treatment: Fruit temperature is raised by saturated water vapor at 44.4°C until the center of the fruit reaches that temperature, and then held for 8.5 hours. Forced hot air treatment: 2 hours at 43°C + 2 hours at 45°C + 2 hours at 46.5°C + 2 hours at 49°C.
Pathological Disorders

Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloesporioides, is a major cause of postharvest losses. Latent infections of unripe papayas develop as the fruits ripen. Lesions appear as small, brown, superficial, watersoaked lesions that may enlarge to 2.5 cm (1 inch) or more in diameter.

Black stem-end rot caused by Phoma caricae-papayae attacks fruit pedicel. After harvest, the disease lesion on fruits appear in the stem area which becomes dark-brown to black. Another stem-end rot is caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

Phomopsis rot caused by Phomopsis caricae-papayae begins in the stem end or a fruit skin wound and can develop rapidly in ripe fruits; invaded tissue softens and darkens slightly.

Phytophthora stem-end rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica begins as water-soaked areas followed by white mycelium that become encrusted. Alternaria rot caused by Alternaria alternata follows chilling injury of papayas kept at temperatures below -12°C (54°F).


PAPAYA PRODUCTION


Papaya (Carica papaya) is a tropical fruit having commercial importance because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Papaya cultivation had its origin in South Mexico and Costa Rica. Total annual world production is estimated at 6 million tonnes of fruits. India leads the world in papaya production with an annual output of about 3 million tonnes. Other leading producers are Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Indonesia, China, Peru, Thailand and Philippines.

MARKET ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY
BACKGROUND

The area under papaya cultivation in India increased by 63% from 45.2 thousand ha. in 1991-92 to 73.7 thousand ha. in 2001-02 and the production increased from 8 lakh tones to 26 lakh tones.Papaya is mostly cultivated in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. (Vide Table-1)

State Area ('000 Ha.) Production ('000 MT) Productivity (MT/Ha.)
Andra Pradesh 11.7 1173.6 100.0
West Bengal 7.2 241.9 33.5
Karnataka 3.6 238.1 65.5
Orissa 10.7 217.5 20.3
Gujarat 4.4 175.1 39.4
Maharashtra 5.8 174.4 30.0
Assam 7.5 111.8 14.8
Kerala 13.2 59.7 4.5
Madhya Pradesh 0.8 70.2 90.0
Others 8.6 159.1 -
TOTAL 73.7 2620.4 35.54

Source : Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture , Govt. of India.

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this report is to present a bankable one acre model for high quality commercial cultivation of the crop.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

Fruit is a rich source of vitamin A and C. It has a high nutritive and medicinal value. Papain prepared from dried latex of its immature fruits is used in meat tenderizing, manufacture of chewing gum, cosmetics, for degumming natural silk and to give shrink resistance to wool. It is also used in pharmaceutical industries, textile and garment cleaning paper and adhesive manufacture, sewage disposal etc.

DEMAND AND SUPPLY PATTERNS

Only 0.08% of domestic production is exported and the rest is consumed within the country. Delhi and Mumbai are the two principal markets. Other major domestic markets are Jaipur, Bangalore Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad. Arrivals are sizeable in the markets of Guwahati, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Patna, Raipur, Baraut and Jammu. The crop arrives in the market around the year in the major States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal.

EXPORT TRENDS

India exports Papaya mainly to Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., Netherlands etc. The trend in export of papaya from India during the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02 is given in Graph 3.

TABLE-2 : COUNTRY-WISE EXPORT OF PAPAYA FROM INDIA DURING 2001-02.
Country Quantity (Tonnes) Value (Rs. in lakhs)
Bahrain 125.17 19.23
Kuwait 148.98 22.37
Netherlands 90.00 10.42/td>
Qatar 142.66 22.39
Saudi Arabia 737.32 107.04
U.A.E. 499.84 59.75
Others 231.90 45.69
TOTAL 1975.87 286.89

Source : APEDA, New Delhi

ANALYSIS AND FUTURE STRATEGY

The fruit being perishable in nature poses problem in marketing. Development of infrastructure facilities for transport to primary markets, standardization of packaging techniques are aspects which need special attention. Processing facilities also need to be created in the major producing states for value addition.

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
MSDAGRO-CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS

Papaya being a tropical fruit grows well in the mild sub-tropical regions of the country upto 1,000 m. above sea level. Night temperature below 120-140 C for several hours during winter season affects its growth and production severely.It is very much sensitive to frost, strong winds and water stagnation. Deep, well drained sandy loam soil is ideal for cultivation of papaya.

GROWING AND POTENTIAL BELTS

The state-wise growing belts are given in the following :

State Growing Belts
Andra Pradesh Cuddapah, Medak, Kurnool, Rangareddy
Assam Nagaon, Darrang, Karbi Anglong
Gujarat Kheda, Ahmedabad, Jamnagar
Jharkhand Simdega, Ranchi, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh, Chatra
Karnataka Bellary, Bidar, Bangalore (R& U), Mandya, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Mysore, Belgaum, Hassan
Maharashtra Sangli, Satara, Pune, Nasik, Sholapur, Nagpur, Amravati
Madya Pradesh Dhar, Khandwa, Bilaspur, Ratlam, Guna, Vidisha
West Bengal North & South 24- Parganas, Hooghly, Nadia, Midnapur

Varieties Cultivated Important papaya varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below :

State Varieties
Andra Pradesh Honey Dew, Coorg Honey Dew, Washington, Solo, Co-1,Co-2, Co-3, Sunrise Solo, Taiwan
Jharkhand Ranchi selection, Honey Dew, Pusa Delicious & Pusa Nanha
Karnataka & Kerala Coorg Honey Dew, Coorg Green, Pusa Delicious & Pusa Nanha
West Bengal Ranchi selection, Honey Dew, Washington, Coorg Green
Orissa Pusa Delicious, Pusa Nanha, Ranchi selection, Honey Dew, Washington, Coorg Green
LAND PREPARATION

A well-drained upland is selected for cultivation. In open and high lying areas plants are exposed to strong winds or storm. Therefore, for proper establishment of papaya plantation, suitable wind break should be planted at the orchard boundary.

PLANTING
PLANTING MATERIAL

Papaya is commercially propagated by seed and tissue culture plants. The seed rate is 250-300 g./ha. The seedlings can be raised in nursery beds 3m. long, 1m. wide and 10 cm. high as well as in pots or polythene bags. The seeds after being treated with 0.1% Monosan (phenyl mercuric acetate), ceresan etc. are sown 1 cm. deep in rows 10 cm. apart and covered with fine compost or leaf mould. Light irrigation is provided during the morning hours. The nursery beds are covered with polythene sheets or dry paddy straw to protect the seedlings. About 15-20 cm. tall seedlings are chosen for planting in about two months

PLANTING SEASON

Papaya is planted during spring (February-March), monsoon (June-July) and autumn (October-November). Spacing A spacing of 1.8 x 1.8 m. is normally followed. However higher density cultivation with spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m./ha enhances the returns to the farmer and is recommended.

HIGH DENSITY PLANTING :

A closer spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m. for cv. Pusha Nanha is adopted for high density planting, accommodating 6,400 plants/ha.

PLANTING METHOD

The seedlings are planted in pits of 60x60x60 cm. size. In the summer months the pits are dug about a fortnight before planting. The pits are filled with top soil along with 20 kg. of farmyard manure., 1 kg. neem cake and 1 kg.bone meal. Tall and vigorous varieties are planted at greater spacing while medium and dwarf ones at closer spacing.

NUTRITION

Papaya plant needs heavy doses of manures and fertilizers. Apart from the basal dose of manures @ 10 kg./plant) applied in the pits, 200-250 g. each of N, P2O5 and K2O are recommended for getting high yield. Application of 200 g. N is optimum for fruit yield but papain yield increases with increase in Nupto 300 g.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Micro-nutrients viz. ZnSO4 (0.5%) and H2 BO3 (0.1%) are sprayed in order to increase growth and yield characters.

IRRIGATION

The irrigation schedule is fixed on the basis of soil type and weather conditions of the region. Protective irrigation is provided in the first year of planting. During the second year, irrigation is provided at fortnightly interval in winter and at an interval of 10 days in summer. Basin system of irrigation is mostly followed. In areas having low rainfall, sprinkler or drip system can be adopted.

INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS

Deep hoeing is recommended during the first year to check weed growth. Weeding should be done on regular basis especially around the plants. Application of Fluchloralin or Alachlorin or Butachlorine (2.0 g./ha.) as pre-emergence herbicide two months after transplanting can effectively control the weeds for a period of four months. Earthing up is done before or after the onset of monsoon to avoid water-logging and also to help the plants to stand erect.

INTER-CROPPING

Intercropping leguminous crops after non-leguminous ones, shallow rooted crops after deep rooted ones are beneficial. No intercrops are taken after the onset of flowering stage.

REMOVAL OF MALE PLANTS

About 10% of the male plants are kept in the orchards for good pollination where dioecious varieties are cultivated. As soon as the plants flower, the extra male plants are uprooted.

PLANT PROTECTION MEASURES

Insect PestsThe insect pests mostly observed are fruit flies (Bactrocera cucurbitae), ak grasshopper (Poekilocerus pictus), aphids (Aphis gossypii), red spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus),stem borer (Dasyses rugosellus) and grey weevil (Myllocerus viridans). In all cases the infected parts need to be destroyed along with application of prophylactic sprays of Dimethoate (0.3%) or methyl demeton (0.05%).

DISEASES

The main diseases reported are powdery mildew (Oidium caricae), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), damping off and stem rot. Application of wettable sulphur (1 g./l.) carbendazim/ thiophanate methyl (1 g./l.) and Kavach/Mancozeb (2 g./l.) has been found to be effective in controlling the diseases.

HARVESTING AND YIELD

Fruits are harvested when they are of full size, light green in colour with tinge of yellow at apical end. On ripening, fruits of certain varieties turn yellow while some of them remain green. When the latex ceases to be milky and become watery, the fruits are suitable for harvesting.

The economic life of papaya plant is only 3 to 4 years. The yield varies widely according to variety, soil, climate and management of the orchard. The yield of 75-100 tonnes /ha. is obtained in a season from a papaya orchard depending on spacing and cultural practices.

POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
GRADING

Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour.

STORAGE

Fruits are highly perishable in nature. They can be stored for a period of 1-3 weeks at a temperature of 10-130 C and 85-90% relative humidity.

PACKING

Bamboo baskets with banana leaves as lining material are used for carrying the produce from farm tolocal market.

TRANSPORTATION

Road transport by trucks/lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to themarket.

MARKETING

The farmers usually dispose off their produce to the wholesalers and middlemen at the farm gate.

TECHNOLOGY SOURCES

Major sources for technology are:

  • Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal.
  • Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Tel : (0651)-2230691.
  • Horticulture and Agro-forestry Research Programme (ICAR), Plandu, Ranchi, Tel :(0651)-2260141, 2260207.
  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110012.
  • IARI Regional Station, Samastipur-848125, Bihar.
  • Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hassaraghatta, Lake Post, Bangalore-560089, Karnataka.
  • Progressive growers of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL
  • High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved variety seedlings as planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz.
  • Synchronized growth, flowering and harvesting;
  • Improved fruit quality;
  • Increases average productivity by more than 60%.
  • Economy and increased efficiency in use of irrigation water with drip irrigation.
COSTS & RETURNS

A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition. The cost components

  • of such a model along with the basis for costing are exhibited in Annexures I & II. A summary
  • is given in the figure below. The project cost works out to Rs. 1.25 lakhs.
Sl. No. Components Proposed Expenditure
1. Cultivation Expenses
(i) Cost of planting material 3400
(ii) Manures & fertilizers 6600
(iii) Insecticides & pesticides 500
(iv) Cost of Labour 8400
(v) Others, if any, (Power Charges) 3600
Total 22,500
2. Irrigation
(i) Tube-well/submersible pump 45,000
(ii) Cost of Pipelines -
(iii) Others, if any -
Total 45,000
3. Cost of Drip/Irrigation including fertigation 25,000
4. Infrastructure
(i) Labour Shed 5,000
(ii) Farm Implementation 3,500/td>
Total 8,500
5. Land Development
(i) Land leveling & layout 4,000
(ii) Fencing 20,000/td>
Total 24,000
6. Land (if newly purchased)*
Grand Total 1,25,000

*Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost

The major components of the model are:

Land Development: (Rs.4.0 thousand): This is the labour cost of shaping anddressing the land site.

Fencing (Rs.20.0 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by barbed wire fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from animals and prevent poaching. This is part cost of fencing taken in first year.

Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs.45 thousand): For effective working with drip irrigation system, it is necessary to install a bore well with diesel/electric pumpset and motor. This is part cost of tube-well.

Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System (Rs.25 thousand): This is average cost of one acre drip system for papaya inclusive of the cost of fertigation equipment. The actual cost will vary depending on location, plant population and plot geometry.

Equipment/Implements (Rs.3.5 thousand): For investment on improved manually operated essential implements a provision of another Rs.3.5 thousand is included.

Building and Storage (Rs.5.0 thousand): A one acre orchard would require minimally a labour shed.

Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs.70 per man-day. The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour.

RECURRING PRODUCTION COST:

Recurring production costs are exhibited in Annexure III. The main components are planting material, landpreparation, inputs application (FYM, fertilizers, micro-nutrients, plant protection chemicals etc.) and labour cost on application of inputs, inter-cultural and other farm operations.

Besides, provision is included for power charges, protection of the plantation (cost of material for wind protection and polythene bunch covers), labour for harvesting and packing/transportation charges for the produce to the nearest secondary market.

Returns from the Project: The yield from the plantation is estimated at 30 tonnes (per acre) the 2nd year and 3rd Year 25 tonnes each .


PAPIN ENZYME


Papain is a proteolytic enzyme from the cysteine proteinase family. It is manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits as papaya is very rich in Papain. A milky fluid known as latex containing Papain oozes out of the green papaya. The greener the fruit, more active is the Papain. Papaya is grown in large quantities in the North-East region including Assam.Papain enzyme results in high value-addition. Hence this product can be manufactured in Assam. It is also possible to produce Papain enzyme in many other states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, UP, AP and so on. Ideally, some progressive papaya grower should undertake his venture as a measure of forward integration.

PRODUCT

Applications Dry powder made from the latex of raw papaya is commonly known as crude Papain. Dried Papain is stored in powder or flakes form. They are diluted with lactose powder to get BPC grade Papain . There is a market for raw as well as BPC grade Papain. This note considers production of BPC grade Papain.

Availability of know-how and compliances CFTRI, Mysore, has developed the technical know-how. Compliance with FPO is necessary.

MARKET POTENTIAL

Papain is used in many industries for variety of reasons. Some of the end-users are breweries, pharmaceuticals, food, leather, detergents, meat and fish processing etc. Thus, the end use segments are many. Most of these industries are growing. Good quality Papain has export demand as well. In spite of very good domestic as well as export demand, Papain manufacturing has not yet picked up in the North-East and hence there are good prospects for new entrants.


GRAPES FARMING


LITTLE BIT ABOUT GRAPE FARMING

Grape cultivation (http://agrifarming.in/tag/grape-cultivation) or farming is one of the most lucrative and profitable farming in India.

REGIONS OF GRAPE CULTIVATION

Grape is cultivated under a variety of soil and climatic conditions in three distinct agro-climatic zones, namely, sub-tropical, hot tropical and mild tropical climatic regions in India. Grapes are grown in both temperate and tropical climate. In tropical climate vines remain evergreen. Grapes perform well where there is no or little rain at the ripening time of the grapes.

IN SUB-TROPICAL REGION

This region extends the northwestern plains correspinding to 28o and32 o N latitude including Delhi ; Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh ; Hissar and Jind districts in Haryana; & Bhatinda, Derozpur, Gurdaspur and Ludhiana districts of Punjab. Vines undergo dormancy and bud break starts in the first week of March while the rains start in the first week of June, and therefore, only 90-95 days are available from the initiation of growth ot harvest. Consequently, ‘Perlette’ is the only early ripening type cultivated in this region. Rain is harmful and this damage is a problem with Thompson Seedless in this area. Single pruning and a single harvest is the accepted practice here.

IN HOT TROPICAL REGION

This region covers Nashik, Sangli, Solapur, Pune, Satara, Latur and Osmanabad regions of Maharashtra; Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Mahbubnagar, Anantapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh; and Bijapur, Bagalkot, Belgaum, Gulberga districs of northern Karnataka lying between 15 o and 20 o N latitude. This is the main viticulture area accounting for 701 percent of the region under grapes in the country. Vines do not undergo dormancy and double pruning and a single harvest is the general practice in tehis region. Maximum and minimum temperature is 42 o and 8 o respectively. The main problems in this region are soil type and water salinity and drough. Berry growth is impaired and in some locations pink blush sometimes develops on green berries, due to temperatures that drop to a low of 8 o. Thompson Seedless are the type of grapes grown in this region.

LAND PREPARATION FOR GRAPE FARMING / SUITABLE SOIL FOR GRAPE FARMING

Types : Grapes are found cultivated on variety of soil types. The best soil types for grapes are known to be well drained loam to sandy loam with good organic matter. Poorly drained, alkaline soils should be avoided. Grapes grown well on soils having less than pH 8.7 and EC upto 1.5 mmhos/cm, calcium carbonate up to 10 percent and lime concentration up to 20 percent.

The land is tilled and laid into plots of 120m x 180m separated by 3m wide roads. Land within a plot is leveled perfectly to have a gradient of less than 1 percent in any direction manner to make sure uniform distribuition of water through the emitters of drip irrigation (http://agrifarming.in/tag/drip-irrigation) system.

Trenches of 75cm width, 75cm depth and 118m length in a north-south direction with a gaop of 3m between trenches are opened with heavy machinery. They are closed with topsoil, up to a height of 45 cm after 15days exposure to sun. The remaining gap is filled with a mixture of soil, cattle manure, single superphosphate, sulphate of potash and micro-nutrients. Usually, 50 kg of cattle manure, 2.5kg of superphosphate, 0.5 kg of sulphate of potash and 50g each of ZnSO4 and FeSO4, are added to the soil for every running meter length of the trench.

BEST PLANTING SEASON FOR GRAPE FARMING

The best season for planting the rooted cuttings of cultivated varieties in the main field is September-October whereas for rootshocks it is February-March.

SPACING IN GRAPE FARMING

Distance generally varies with the varieties and soil fertility.

System Planting Distance No of Vines Per Hectare
Head System 2m x 1.5m 3300
Kniffin System 3m x 3m 1089
Bower System 3m x 6m 561
PRUNING OF VINES IN GRAPE FARMING

Pruning should be done in January every ear when the vines are still dormant. Keep only healthy fruiting canes with the recommened number of buds per cane depending upon the cultivar.

The rest of shoots are pruned to one or two buds. These are called renewal spurs. These spurs sprout to give healty shoots which are selected as fruiting canes in the coming years. A balance 1:2 is kept between fruiting cane and renewal spurs. In madhurai area staggered pruning is done to get fruit all along the year.

In the mild tropical area, vines are pruned tow times and the crop is harvesed twice. In varieties like Gulabi and Bangalore Blue, which are fairly resistant to rain damage and in which fruit bud differentiation is not impaired by cloudy weather and rains, pruning is done at any time of the year. As a result, five crops are harvested every tow years.

In hot tropical areas, vines are pruned two times but only one crop is harvested. All canes in a vine are pruned back to single node spurs in March-May to develop canes and the canes are forward pruned in October-November for fruiting . The number of nodes retained on a cane varies with the variety and cane thickness. There is no scope to prune earlier than October and later than November due to unfavorable climate conditions.

MANURES AND FERTILIZERS USED IN GRAPE FARMING

As vineyard soils are either sandy loams or heavy clays, the usage of organic manure has assumed critical and high importance in India. To the recentyly planted vines apply 20gm of urea in March and repeat the dose in May and July to complete the growth up the bower in one season. From second year onward for vines planted at 3 x 3 m distance the following fertilizers doses and schedule may be adopted.

Apply whole farm yard Manure (FYM) and super phosphate as well as half N and half K fertilizer just after pruning. Apply remaining N and K after fruit set in April. Use of these does have encouraged excessive vegetative growth on all vines irrespective of the system of training adopted, particularly in clay loam soils.

WEEDING CONTROL IN GRAPE FARMING

Vines are planted closely and normally on bower system, hence due to shade weeds could make little growth. But in vineyards trained on kniffin and head system the weeds get ample irrigation, nutrition and light to flourish. Therefore, it is very necessary to control the weeds.

Weeds between the rows of vines are removed mechanically by tractor drawn implements. Within the rows, weeds are manually hoed and removed. Sometimes the post-emergent weedicides, mainly plyphosate at about 2.0lg/ha or paraquat at about 7.5kg/ha is sprayed in fully grown vineyards.

INTER CROPPING

No inter crop should be grown in vineyards as growing of inter crop shall be at the cost of training of vines.

HARVESTING & YIELDING :

Grapes must be harvested only when all the berries have developed the unique colour and desired TSS of the Cultivar.

Grapes are harvested by repeated pickings since the bunches do not ripen at one time. Taste is the most valuable indicator of the ripeness of the ripeness of the bunch. The berries at the shoulders ripe first followed by centre and tip of the clusters.

VARIETY
Variety Yield (t/ha) Average Potential Period of Hrvest
Anab-e-Shahi 45 90 February-May, July, November-December
Bangalore Blue 40 60 January-March, June-December
Bhokri 30 0 November-December, June-July
Gulabi 30 50 January-March, June-December
Perlette 40 50 June
Thompson Seedless and other seedless Varieties 25 50 January-April
PESTS, DISEASE MANAGEMENT & CONTROL

The Most important pests of grape farming in India are, flea beetles, thrips, mealy bugs and leaf hoppers. The important grape diseases are anthracnose, downy mildew,powdery mildew and bacterial leaf spot. In recent year, Alternaria is also becoming a serious pathogen.

  • Anthracnose is prevalent in all grape growing areas of the country. The disease in characterized by little light brown or greyish black lesions on tender shoots, young leaves, flowers and young berries. Bordeaux mixture at 0.8 percent, copper oxychloride at 0.25 percent or carbendazim at 0.1 percent are used to control this disease.
  • Downy mildew is the most devastating disease of grapes in the tropical are of the country. The disease mainly appears on the leaves, but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits. The losses are very high when it attacks the clusters before fruit set. Entire clusters decay, dry and drop down. Properly neutralized bordeaux mixture at 1 percent, copper oxychloride at 0.32 percent, Mancozeb at 0.2 percent, Metalaxyl (Ridomil Mz at 0.2 percent) or Phosethyl-Al (aliettle at 0.2 percent) are used against this disease.
  • Powdery mildew is prevalent in all the grape growing areas. It is next in importance to downy mildew in its devastating severity. The disease is characherized by the presence of white powdery (ash like) coating in patches on two sides of the leaves, young shoots and immature berries. Powdery mildew is managed and controlled easily by wettable Sulphur formulations. A wide range of fungicides, namely, Calaxin at 0.07 percent, karathane EC at 0.4 percent, Myclobutanil (Systhane at 0.5 percent), Triademifon (Bayleton at 0.1 percent) and Penconazol (Topas at 0.025 percent )are used to control this disease.

Bacteria infects leaves, sshoots and berries. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves, especially along the main and lateral veins. These spots coalesce and form larger patches. Severely infected leaves give a blighted appearance. Streptocyclin at 500ppm is used as a prophylactic spray, while Bordeaux mixture at 0.8 percent or copper oxychloride at 0.15 percent is used to check its spread.

MARKETING OF GRAPES

More than 80 percent of the aggregate creation is expended as table grapes in India, and more than 70 percent of the aggregate generation is gathered in March-April, yet the cold storage spaces are lacking. Accordingly, market overabundances and fall of costs of grapes in March-April are basic. Roughly, 2.5 percent (22000t) of new grapes are sent out to the Middle East and European nations. Whatever remains of the produce is advertised inside the nation. Grapes are sent out through three separate offices viz., Grower Exporters, Growers’ cooperatives and the Trader exporters. These orgs have created their own offices for precooling and icy stockpiling in the region of significant generatioin locales..


MANGO FARMING


Mango Farming is the leading fruit crop farming of india and considerd to be the king of fruit. Besides delicious taste, excellent flavor and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. the tree is hardy in nature and requires comparatively low maintenance costs.

Mango fruit is utilized at all stages of its development both in its immature and mature state. Raw fruits are used for making chutney, pickles and juices. The ripe fruit besides being used for desert are also utilized for preparing several products like squashes, syrups, nectar, jams and jellies. The mango kernel also contains 8-10 percent good quality fat which can be used for soap and also as a substitute for cola in confectionery.

Mango occupies 22% of the total under fruits comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tones. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, Telangana are having the largest area under mango ach with around 25% of the total area followed by Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are the important items of agri exports from India. India’s main export destinations for mango are USA and other Middle East countries with a limited quantity being shipped to European market. Although , India is the largest mango producing country, accounting about 60% of world production, the export of fresh fruit is limited to Alphonso and Dashehari varieties. India;s share in the world market is about 15 percent. Mango accounts for 40 percent of the total fruit exports from the country. There is good scope for increasing the area and productivity of mango in the country.

PLANTING & PLANTING MATERIAL IN MANGO FARMING

Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. Plants are generally propogated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting, in arching and epicotyls grafting etc.

PLANTING SEASON IN MANGO FARMING

Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed area and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of rainy season.

SPACING IN MANGO FARMING

The planting distance is 10m. x 10m. and 12m. x 12m. in dry and moist zones respectively. In the model scheme, a spacing of 8meter x 8meter with a population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study.

Training of Plants in Mango Farming :

Training of plants as part of Mango Farming in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape specially in case where the graft has branched too low.

MANGO FARMING NUTRITION

Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October, in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. Foliar applications of 3% urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering.

The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) in Mango Farming:

Age of the plant (in years) Fertilizer applied
1* 100g. N, 50g. P2O5, 100g. K2O
10 1kg. N, 500g. P2O5, 1kg. K2O
11 same as above
*The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year upto 10 years in the multiple of the first year’s dose.

Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. For trench application of fertilizers, 400g. each of N and K2O and 200g. of P2O5 per plant should be provided. Micro-nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays.

IRRIGATION OR WATERING IN MANGO FARMING

Young plants are watered frequently for proper establishment. In case of grown up trees, irrigation at 10 to 15 days interval from fruit set to maturity is beneficial for improving yield. However, irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.

INTER CROPPING IN MANGO FARMING

Inter crops such as vegetables legumes, short duration and dwarf fruit crops like papaya, guava, peach, plum, etc. depending on the agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown. The water and nutrient requirements of the inter crops must be met separately.

HARVESTING AND YIELD OF MANGO CROP :

The yield of mango varies greatly, depending upon the variety and agro-climatic conditions prevailing in a region. Grafted mango trees start bearing from the fifth year onward. However, seedling trees may take 8-10 years.

At the start of bearing at the age of 3-4 years the yield may be as 10-20 fruits (2-3 kg) per tree, rising to 50-75 fruits (10-15 kg) in the subsequent years, and to about 500 fruits (100kg) in its tenth year. In the age group 20-40 years, a tree bears 1000-3000 fruits (200-600kg) in an “on” year. The productive age of a grafted mango tree is usually 40-50 years, after which the yield declines.

POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT IN MANGO FARMING

Storage: Shelf life of mangoes being short (2-3 weeks) they are cooled as soon as possible to storage temperature of 13 degree Celcius. A few varieties can withstand storage temperature of 10 degree Celcius. Steps involved in post harvest handling include preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletisation and transportation.

Packaging: Mangoes are generally packed in corrugated fiber board boxes 40 cm x 30 cm in size. Fruits are packed in single layer 8 to 20 fruits per carton. The boxes should have sufficient number of air holes (about 8% of the surface area) to allow good ventilation.

Financial institutions have also formulated mango financing schemes in potential area for expansion of area under mango. Individual mango development schemes with farm infrastructure facilities like well, pump set, fencing and drip irrigation system etc. have also been considered.


RED SANDAL WOOD


INTRODUCTION TO SANDAL TREE

Sandalwood is the fragrant heartwood of the species Santalum album L. The Sandal tree is of great economical importance because of its scented heart wood which yields very high commercial returns. Sandal tree is a hemi parasite which requires a host tree for absorption of few minerals from the root system of the host tree. The current demand of heartwood would fetch around Rs. 4,000 – 5,000/ kg of heartwood and the oil costs around Rs. 1.0 – 1.25 Lakh/liter. All the parts of the tree are commercially important with guaranteed high returns. Heartwood being the highest valued part of the sandalwood tree, followed by the mixed wood and sapwood. Even the seeds are sold at a market price of around Rs. 300 – 500/kg and leaves are also used as fodder.

MORPHOLOGY

Sandal tree is a small evergreen tree attaining a height of 12 to 15 meters and a girth of 1 to 2.4 meters. The shape of the leaves vary with six morphological types recognized widely. The stem gradually turns brownish and becomes hard after one year of planting. The bark is reddish brown or dark brown and red inside, the outer most sapwood is white in colour and scentless, whereas, central core wood called heartwood is yellowish to brown in color and highly scented. The tap root system is not deep and lateral root runs almost parallel to the ground and the young rootlets produce haustoria. Root system contains the highest oil content in the tree. Variation in heart wood and oil content depends on genotype (source) and edaphic (soil and climate) conditions.

DISTRIBUTION OF SANDAL

It is naturally distributed in an extent of around 9600 sq.km with majorly in Karnataka followed by Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh of peninsular India. It has also been introduced into a number of other states in India and has become naturalized in parts of Rajasthan, Orissa, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Sandalwood is capable of growing in different kinds of soils like; sand, clay, laterite, loam and black-cotton soil (avoiding water-logged conditions).

SANDAL CULTIVATION

Sandal wood cultivation is a very high lucrative investment with guaranteed returns. Establishment of sandal wood cultivation requires a very less investment and low cultivation costs. With increase in labour cost and time availability for investing in other agricultural crops, a shift from normal agricultural to forestry species with high commercial returns has been observed. The details of sandalwood cultivations costs, profits have been discussed in our sandal based agroforestry demo plot section.

4 YEAR SANDAL WOOD TREE
SANDAL SEEDLINGS

Quality Planting Material
Quality of the sandal seedlings for sale at Parvathi Plantations, Bevenahalli.Polythene bag
size: 5' X 8'. Plant height: Up to 1 feet and above.
Host plant: Red gram/Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).
All the seedlings for sale have well developed haustorial connections for high survival rate and good growth in the field conditions.

PARVATHI PLANTATIONS

General information on quality seedling production at Parvathi Plantations:
Before selecting the seedlings for planting, many aspects need to be considered for greater return.
The selection of saplings with requisite quality is called 'Quality planting material’.
Important aspects which should be considered for sandal are:

  • Source of seeds collection used for raising seedlings.
  • Quality of the seedling at the time of planting material.
  • Haustorial development of the seedlings.

Parvathi Plantations are proud to declare that we provide quality planting material stock of sandalwood seedlings raised in a scientific manner.
The genetic source of our sandalwood seedlings are from our own sandal plantations supplied by IWST and established as Model sandalwood agroforestry demo plot of Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore. The sandalwood plantations have been raised based on the guidance of Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, who are pioneers in sandalwood research from many decades.
Our quality planting seedlings are raised from plantations which have been raised from quality planting seedlings a of proven genetic background, collected from known sandalwood plus trees or from the seedling seed orchards (SSO) or clonal seed orchards (CSO) of IWST.
Our seedlings are raised in the scientific manner with quality potting media in proper proportions along with the host in the polythene bags.
The host plant is added at the early nursery stage itself for early establishment of haustorial connection for easy establishment of the plants in the field conditions.

SANDAL BASED AGROFORESTRY DEMO PLOT

Sandal based agroforestry demo plot of 6 ha. have been established in our Parvathi Plantations at Bevenahalli from Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore. The demo plot was established in the year 2007 from the seedlings provided by the IWST under the National Medicinal Plant Board sponsored project. A very robust growth is observed in the last 4 years of plantations along with mango as secondary host tree. We are also been part of promotions of growing sandal in private farm land and have provided with our own personal inputs to the trainees who come to our field during the training programs conducted by IWST on sandal. Along with mango as secondary host, in initial years, red chilli and pigeon pea were planted as understory crops as agroforestry system with good returns (photographs available in photo gallery). A field visit to our sandal plantations would be highly desirable to have firsthand experience for any individual interested in sandal cultivation.

ECONOMICS OF SANDALWOOD CULTIVATION

In sandal agroforestry, quincuncial design of planting is highly promising. The spacing also ensures cultivation of agricultural crops of understory low spreading legumes/ fodder / horticulture crops during the initial years. Sandal plants are expected to established and perform well in intercropping since periodic inter cultural operations can improves soil aerations and others soil physical chemical properties.

Economics of sandal cultivation can be calculated based on the following points;

  • The yield of heartwood is estimated to be a minimum of 8kg, mixed wood 10kg and sapwood 21kg in the 15th year.
  • Growth increment of 2-3cm per year has been estimated for sandal plantation in private lands.
  • The price of heartwood is Rs. 5,000/kg, mixed wood Rs. 1500/kg and sapwood Rs.50/kg.
  • 225 plants per acre will be accommodated @ 6x3m spacing.
  • The establishment cost for one acre would be approximately Rs.56,750/-
  • Returns of sandal would be minimum of Rs. One Crore after 15 years from one acre.

*The information on cost analysis provided may vary based on the individual inputs and the sophistications of implementation of the project. The profit amount quoted above is the lowest and with guaranteed returns. We do not quote exaggerating values. Based on individual requirements of the farmers and investors, we provide consultancy for sandal cultivation. We do provide service for complete set up of sandal plantations from land preparations, planting to management and maintenance for one year.

ESTABLISHMENT COST FOR ONE ACRE
S. No. Components Duration Cost Returns (in Rupees)
1. Land preparation including pitting Initial 20,000 -
2. Sandal Seeding Initial 6,750 -
3. Irrigation (Drip) Initial 60,000 -
4. Irrigation (Drip) 2nd Year 15,000 -
5. Sale of Seeds 4th Year onwards 2,40,000 10,00,000
6. Management including soil working, weeding and fertilizer application 2nd Year onwards up to 10th Year 20,000/year (1,60,000) -
7. Security 5th Year onwards 50,000/year (5,00,000 for 10 year) -
8. Gross benefit - - 1 Crore
9. Net benefit - 10.00 Lakh 1 Crore
ESTABLISHMENT COST OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
S. No. Components Duration Cost
1. Pit preparation Initial 1,00,000
2. Saplings Initial 4,600
3. Irrigation (Drip) Initial 60,000
4. Irrigation (Drip) For 15 year 1,20,000
5. Sale of Seeds - -
6. Management including soil working, weeding and fertilizer application/td> 2nd Year onwards 35,000/year (5,25,000 for 15 year)
7. Gross Investment - 7.19 Lakhs
8. - - 8 Lakhs